DELHI SULTANATE
1246
Nasiruddin Mahmud, son of Iltutmish, becomes the
eighth Sultan of Delhi.
1255
Birth of Amir Hasan Sijzi in Badaun.
1256-57
Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya comes to Delhi. Sets up
his khanaqah on the banks of River Yamuna in the
village of Ghiyaspur.
1265
Sheikh Fariduddin Ganj -i-Shakar's visal
1266
Ghiyasuddin Balban, ex-slave, son-in-law and
Prime Minister of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud,
becomes the ninth Sultan of Delhi after the death
of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud.
Sultan Balban builds 'Kushaki Lal', the earliest
Islamic palace in Delhi which is today identified
with the Lal Mahal in the Nizamuddin Basti.
1276
Birth of Sheikh Nasiruddin Chiragh, the spiritual
successor of Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya and a
friend of Amir Khusrau.
1277
Sultan Balban leads the expedition against the rebels in Bengal along with his son Bughra Khan. After the destruction of rebels, Bughra Khan is entrusted with the government of
Bengal.
1285
Fall of Prince Mohammad Khan, eldest
son of Balban, in the battle against
Mongols.
1287
Sultan Balban dies and his grandson
Kaiqubad, aged 18, succeeds him as
the Sultan.
1290
Sultan Kaiqubad suffers from
paralysis and is replaced by his
infant son as Sultan. Jalaluddin
KhIlji, the amir-e-aariz, seizes the
throne and becomes the Sultan.
1290
Jalaluddin Khilji captures the
throne of Delhi, ending the Slave
dynasty.
1296
Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji gets killed
by the men of Alauddin, his
nephew and son-in-law.
1296
Alauddin Khilji rises to power and
becomes a powerful Khilji ruler. Builds
his fort in Delhi named Siri.
1299
Invasion of Gujarat.
1300-01
Expedition sent for the conquest of
Ranthambor, after which, the fort of
Chittor is conquered.
1301-02
The Mongol army, commanded by Targhi,
invades India and reaches the vicinity of
Delhi unchecked. Sultan Alauddin
defends the capital from inside.
1305-06
Expeditions organised and despatched
for the conquest of the regions of Malwa
and Gujarat.
1306-07
Malik Kafur despatched with an army to
attack Deccan, Deogiri.
1310-11
Conquest of Telangana, Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka and other
coastal regions.
1314
Sultan Alauddin falls ill and calls
back Malik Kafur from Deogiri.
Malik Kafur instigates Alauddin to
have his brother-in-law Alap Khan
assassinated.
1315-16
Death of Sultan Alauddin and
Malik Kafur
1316
Accession of Qutbuddin
Mubarak Shah on the throne
of Delhi.
1320
Murder of Sultan Qutbuddin
Mubarak Shah by the supporters
of Khusrau Khan. Malik Ghazi, a
loyal of Khilji, defeats Khusrau
Khan and gets the latter
executed. Malik Ghazi ascends
the throne and adopts the title of
Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah.
1321-22
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
begins the construction
of a new fortified city of
Delhi known as
Tughlaqabad. At the
same time, a baoli is
built by Nizamuddin
Auliya's disciple
Nasiruddin Chiragh.
1324
Estrangement of
relations between
Sheikh Nizamuddin
Auliya and the Sultan.
1325
Sultan Ghiyasuddin dies
of an accident.
Succession of Sultan
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Shah to the throne.

1253

NASIRUDDIN MAHMUD

1266

khusrau with the slave dynasty 1272-1290 AD
"I tied the belt of service on my waist and put on the cap
of companionship. For another five years I imparted
lustre to the waters of Multan from the ocean of my wits
and pleasentries." (Khusrau)

SLAVE DYNASTY


GHIYASUDDIN BALBAN

IN THE SERVICE OF MALIK CHHAJJU

After the death of his maternal grandfather, Khusrau was
compelled to seek a job. Khusrau got himself recruited in a
platoon of Khan-e-Mo'zzam Malik Chhajju. During the term
of his service, he composed a few panegyrics in his patron's
praise.

IN THE COURT OF BUGHRA KHAN

Bughra Khan welcomed Khusrau in his service on the
request of some poets who were associated with his
court. Here too, Khusrau donned the cap of excellence
and served prince Bughra Khan for almost four years

IN THE COURT OF SULTAN MOHAMMAD SHAHED

Khusrau joined Sultan Mohammad as a companion to
Multan. The sultan died in a battle with the Mongols and
Khusrau was taken as prisoner. However, he escaped and
returned to Delhi. He stayed in Multan for five years

IN THE SERVICE OF HATIM KHAN

Khusrau went to Awadh to live in the protection of Ali Sarjandar
Hatim Khan. He remained in his service as one of his companions
for almost two years. The momentous confrontation and
reconcilliation of Bughra Khan, the governor of Lakhnauti with
his son Sultan Muizuddin Kaiqubad, the king of Delhi took place
during his stay in Awadh.

1287

MUIZUDDIN KAIQUBAD

1290

IN THE COURT OF
MUIZUDDIN KAIQUBAD

The king asked him to commemorate his historical
meeting with his father Bughra Khan, which Khusrau
did in a long poem named Qiran-us-Sa'dain.
However, the king did not reward Khusrau in terms
of the gold and jewels that he had promised. This
soured Khusrau's relation with the king and he
began looking for a rising star to seek new
patronage. That rising star was Jalaluddin Khilji.

1296

JALALUDDIN KHILJI

in the Court of Jalaluddin KhIlji

Khusrau used to compose ghazals for Khilji, for which he used to get good rewards. Khusrau's major work in the times of Jalaluddin Khilji was his historical masnavi, known as Miftah-ul-Futuh that recounts four victories of Jalaluddin Khilji, achieved by him in the span of one year.

khusrau with

the

khiljis

&

the tughlaqs 12901325 AD

KHILJI DYNASTY


     ALAUDDIN KHILJI

1316

QUTBUDDIN
MUBARAK SHAH

1320

TUGHLAQ DYNASTY


GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ

1325

in the Court of ALAUDDIN KhIlji

Khusrau spent most of his time in writing his khamsa in imitation of Khamsa-e-Nizami during the reign of Alauddin Khilji. His Khamsa (quintet) comprised of Matla-ul-Anwar, Shirin wa Khusrau, Layla wa Majnun, Aina-i-Sikandari and Hasht Bihisht. After he finished his Khamsa, he tried his hand at writing a historical prose titled Khazain-ul-Futuh in which he chronicled all the conquests of Alauddin Khilji. Khusrau's masnavi Dewal Rani Khizr Khan has for its story the love-affairs of Dewal Dei, the daughter of Raja Karan Rai of Gujarat, with Khizr Khan.

in the Court of Sultan Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

Khusrau completed his masnavi Nuh Sipihr, in which he
chronicled all the achievements and conquests that
Sultan Qutbuddin Shah had made in the early years of
his reign. Khusrau completed his book on insha (letter)
writing named Ijaz-i-Khusrawi. His third diwan Ghurratul-
Kamal was also written around this time and his
fourth diwan Baqiya Naqiya completed after the death
of Alauddin Khilji.

IN THE COURT OF GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ

Khusrau wrote qasidas for Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq,
but was overlooked by the Sultan due to strained relations
between the Sultan and Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.
Khusrau went on military expeditions with Ghiyasuddin
Tughlaq which he has described in Tughlaq Nama

IN THE COURT OF SULTAN MOHAMMAD

During the last seven months of his life, Khusrau was very closely associated with Sultan Mohammad, son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. He composed two eulogies in his praise, and one of them was written in imitation of Anwari's.
KHUSRAU'S LIFE

1253

NASIRUDDIN MAHMUD

Patiali



1253
Birth of Amir
Khusrau in Patiali
where his father
Amir Saifuddin
Sultani is posted
as a military
officer since the
time of Sultan
Shamsuddin
Iltutmish.

Delhi



1264
Death of
Khusrau's father.
His arrival in
Delhi for higher
education under
the guardianship
of his maternal
grandfather
Imad-ul-Mulk
who was the
Amir-i-Ariz
(paymastergeneral
of the
Army).

1266

1271-72
Approximate date
of death of Imadul-
Mulk. Entry of
Amir Khusrau in
the service of
Malik Chhajju as
a court poet.
Khusrau compiles
his first diwan of
poetry,

Tuhfat-us-Sighr.


35 qasidas are in
praise of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Balban
and his son Prince
Muhammad Khan
Nasiruddin, the
Martyr Prince. Some
are also on the nobles
of Balban's court like
Amir Ali surnamed
Hatam Khan,
Ikhityaruddin Kishlu
Khan, Shamsuddin,
and Qiwamulmulk
Azizuddin.
1274-75
Approximate date
of Amir Khusrau's
joining the circle
of murids of
Sheikh
Nizamuddin
Auliya.
Above: Hazrat
Nizamuddin with Amir
Khusrau. (See p. 22)
Right: Tughra stating
Mohammad as the
Prophet of God. Detail
from the metal door
leading to the dargah
of Hazrat Nizamuddin
from the step well.
(See p. 154)

SLAVE DYNASTY


GHIYASUDDIN BALBAN

Samana

1276
Amir Khusrau
joins the service
of Prince Bughra
Khan, the second
son of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin
Balban and the
Governor of the
territorial unit of
Samana.

Bengal

1277
Khusrau
accompanies
Bughra Khan on
his Bengal
expedition, but
soon returns to
Delhi.
 

Multan




1280
Joins court of
Sultan
Muhammad
(Balban's eldest
son) and travels
with him to
Multan.
1283
Amir Khusrau
compiles his
second diwan,

Wasat-ul-hayat.


It contains 58 qasidas
and 8 tarjis. The main
qasidas are in praise
of God, the Prophet,
Nizamuddin Auliya,
others on Balban,
Kaiqubad, Bughra
Khan, Ikhtiyaruddin
Kishli Khan,
Shamsuddin Dabir,
Tajuddin Alp bin
Azhdar, and Jajaluddin
Firuz Shah Khilji

Lahore




1285
In the battle
fought against
the Mongols,
Khusrau is taken
a prisoner but is
able to escape
and return to
Delhi. In Delhi, he
composes his
famous marsia
poem on the
untimely fall of
Prince
Muhammad
Khan, now called
Khan-e-Shaheed.

1287

MUIZUDDIN KAIQUBAD

Awadh




1287-88
Khusrau joins the
service of Hatim
Khan, the
Governor of
Awadh. Khusrau
stays with him in
Awadh for two
years and then
returns to Delhi
  Above: Islamic brass astrolabe. (See p. 139)

1290

1289 Khusrau gets invited by Sultan Kaiqubad and is made a courtier. He is asked to write the history of his reign with special references to the meeting between him and his father, Bughra Khan. Khusrau completes his first historical masnavi

Qiran-us-Sa'dain.


In Qiran-us-Sa'dain, Khusrau describes the planets, stars, zodiacs, lunar mansions,and other astrological aspects at the time of the meeting. The masnavi also describes the cultural role of Delhi, its magnificent buildings and gardens
1290
Amir Khusrau
favoured with the
title of Nadim
and also
appointed as
mashafdar.
1292 Amir Khusrau composes the second historical masnavi,

Miftah-ul-futuh.


MIftah-ul-futuh is a detailed account of the accession of Jalaluddin Khilji and of his military achievements. Khusrau explaines the early career of his hero before his arrival in India. His work is free of flattery and describes the events as they occured. Khusrau accompanied the Sultan on his expedition, he describes the topography of the region, the rivers, the barren deserts and the beauty of Jhain's palace.

JALALUDDIN KHILJI

Delhi

1296

ALAUDDIN KHILJI
KHILJI DYNASTY

Ranthambore           Chittor
1298 Birth of Khusrau's son Ain Uddin.
Prince Khusrau Parvez, Emperor of Iran. (See p. 82)
1299
Death of
Khusrau's mother
and younger
brother Mubarak
Qutlugh in close
succession. The
same year,
Khusrau's
masnavis
Matla-ul-anwar,
Shirin-o-Khusrau
and Majnun-o-
Layla
get
completed.
1302 Birth ofAmir Khusrau's daughter Afifa. The same year, he completes the masnavis Aina-e-Sikandari and Hasht Bihisht. Amir Khusrau accompanies the King on his Ranthambhore campaign.
  Alauddin Khilji attacks Ranthombhor. (See p. 55)
1303
Amir Khusrau
accompanies the
king on his
Chittor campaign.

Hasht Bihisht
narrates the romantic
life of Bahram Gur,
the Persian king
famous for his hunting
exploits.

Aina-e-Sikandari
is a masnavi about
warfare. Khusrau has
depicted the battles
fought between
Darius, the Emperor
of Iran, and Alexander,
the Greek King of
Macedon
1312
Amir Khusrau
completes

Khazain-ul-Futuh.

It gives a detailed
history of Sultan
Alauddin Khilji's reign.









Above: Amir Khusrau
presents a manuscript
to Alauddin Khilji.
(See p. 26)
Delhi

1316

1313
Amir Khusrau
writes Dewal Rani
Khizr Khan,
the
love story of
crown prince
Khizr Khan and
Dewal Rani.












Khizr Khan and Dewal
Rani being entertained.
(See p. 105)


The masnavi was
written at the instance
of his friend and
disciple of Hazrat
Nizamuddin Auliya,
Prince Khizr Khan,
eldest son of Sultan
Alauddin Khilji.

QUTBUDDIN MUBARAK SHAH

1316 Sultan Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah comes to power. In the same year Khusrau compiles the diwan Baqiya Naqiya.

Khusrau describes the four orders of poetry which he likens to the four elements, i.e. earth, water, air and fire, and of which the one resembling fire, he says, is the noblest and most sublime. Some of these poems are evidently imitations of older masters but most of them are original in style and are perfect specimens of Khusrau's highest art.
1317
Amir Khusrau
writes his fourth
historical masnavi,
Nuh Sipihr,
documenting the
reign of Sultan
Qutbuddin
Mubarak Shah.


1319
Completion of his
prose work Ijaz-i-
Khusrawi
in five
volumes.


In Nuh Siphir, Khusrau praises India as a Paradise on Earth. "Had India not been a paradise, peacock, the Bird of paradise would have adopted some other garden as its home. (See p. 127)


Ijaz-i-Khusrawi not only sheds light on Amir Khusrau's command over Arabic and Persian, but also provides insights into the life and culture of the Sultanate of Delhi.
1321
Amir Khusrau
revises the
masnavi, Dewal
Rani Khizr Khan
,
adding the tragic
circum-stances in
which Khizr Khan
gets blinded and
killed.


Below: Astrological chart of the coronation of King Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. (See p. 118)

1320

TUGHLAQ DYNASTY


GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ

Deogiri            Bengal             Awadh
1322
Khusrau
completes the
masnavi, Tughlaq
Nama.



Tughlaq Nama
contains the details of
the events and
military campaigns of
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
Shah's short reign.
Khusrau was also
proven astrologer. In
Tughlaq Nama, he
described the
planetary positions on
the occasion of the
coronation of King
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
1323-24 Amir Khusrau accompanies Prince Ulagh Khan on his Deogiri, Lakhnauti and Awadh campaigns.


Nihayat-ul-Kamal, the fifth and the last collection of Khusrau's poems, was composed by him around the close of his life, after the death of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and the ascension to the throne by his son Muhammad Tughlaq
 

1325

1325
The deaths of
Sheikh
Nizamuddin
Auliya and Amir
Khusrau.
The fifth diwan
Nihayat-ul-Kamal
is compiled.





Above: Shrine of
Amir Khusrau.
(See p. 28.)