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Amir Khusrau: Poetry in context


9th Oct, 2011
Urs Mahal, Hazrat Nizamuddin Basti

Amir Khusrau: Poetry in Context

Key Speaker: Dr Anand Mohan Zutshi Gulzar Dehelavi
Moderator: Syed Farid Nizami
Participants: Prof. Syed Shahid Mahdi, Prof. Akhlaq Ahan
Discussion Theme:
Excerpts from the discussion:

Amir Khusrau ki zindagi, shayari, andaaz-e bayan” ke mauze par guftagu aur bahas hogi jisme speaker ki haisiyat se Gulzar Dehlavi, Syed Shahid Mehdi, Professor Yunus Jaffrey, Professor Sharif Hussain Qasemi aur Dr. Akhlaque Ahmad Ahan maujood hain.
Pandit Anand Mohan Zutshi Gulzar Dehlavi:

Amir Khusrua ki ye den hai ki unhone Hindustani zaban ko jela bakhshi hai. Is Hindustan men bahut sari boliya, zabanen thi, balki zabane kum aru boliyan zyada thin, in mein se kuch ke script they aur kuch ke nahi they jaise Haryanvi, Magadhi, Maithali, Awadhi, Brijbhasha aur Bhojpori aur in zabanon ko prakirten aur apbharansh se aamez kiya. Professor Sayed Shahid Mehdi

Amir Khusrau ki shakhsiyat adhi Turk aur adhi Hindi nasal ki thi. Unke walid Turkzad they jabki unki maa Hindustani nasl ki thi. Unke nana jo hain woh Hindustani omara main unka shumar hain, aur Balban ke darbar mein they. Walid ke intaqal bahut pehle ho jata hain parvarish sari ki sari nanihal mein hoti hain. Isliye Khusrau ko hum bade sohra mein pehla shayar aur Hindustani Farsi ka pehla shayar kah sakte hain. Ek cheez hai zehan nashin karne ki aur who ye ki Amir Khusrau ko recognition hain aur yeh zamana jisme Khusrau hain Saadi ke foren baad ka hain aur Haafiz se shayad woh overlap karte hain. Itni badi classics ka zamana hain aur usme Khusrau ko taslim kiya gaya ki yeh Farsi ke shayar hain.

Aaj ke Hindustan mein bahut se log aise hain jo English mein likhna pasand karte hain isliye ke woh English ke rutbe ko jante hain aur who apni literary zaban isi ko mante hain. Thik isi tarah Khusrau ki adabi zaban Farsi hain,aur is ke liye unhonen badi jurraten ki hain. Maslan yeh ke Nizami ke Khamse ke jawab mein Khamsa likhna bahut jurrat ka kaam hain jo Khusrau ne kiya. Khusrau ke Khamse me panch masnwi hain: Matlaul Anwar, Shirin Khusrau, Majnu o Laila, Aaine Sikandari, Hasht Bahisht. Iske alawa bahut sari masnaviyan bhi hain,Qiran us Sadain ek tarikhi waqiya par munhasir hai. Is ke alawa Dewal Rani Khizr Khan bhi ek tarikhi waqiya par munhasir hain aur ye kafi jurrat ka kam hai ki ek shahi khandan ke romantic waqiye ko usi zamane mein qalam band karna. Aur khas taur se Khizr Khan ka zamane mein jo kafi tawaful muluki ka daur raha hai. Amir Khusrau ghaleban pehle aise Hindi, Hindustani, Hindi-Farsi shayar hein jinko ke Iran men bhi sanad manna gaya hai. Yeh pehle Hindustani Farsi shayar hain, jinki shohret khud unki zindagi mein saari Farsi duniya mein fail chuki thi. Haafiz ka ye sher is ki missal hai: “Shakkar shikan shawand ham-e tutiyan-e Hind - zin qand e Parsi ke be bangaleh mee rawad.”
Professor Yunus Jaffrey

Ek bahas taswuf ke hawale se bhi hai ki tasawauf kya hai aur kahan paida hua aur kyon paida hua. Tasawaur Khurasan ke Shorber shaher mein paida hota hai, ye shaher ek naqshband ke chote chote gaon hai. Yahan jab buzurg guzre to unhone ye dekha ki yahan ek khas khas maslak hai jisko ykja karne ke liye unhone tasawuf ki taalim ka dars diya. Bihara ek Buddhist monastery hain.Yehi lafz waha pohanch kar us ilaqe ke log jisko khanib, hanib kehte hain aur yahi lafz aage chal kar Bokhara ban jata hai. Gaya Kanishka ke baad Bodhgaya ka tamam tamuddun aur rehan sehan Central Asia mein pohanch gaya. Aur yaha se ek maslak nikalta hain. Mahatma Buddh ka mazhab bhi ek Ariyai mazhab tha.

Aur idher Central Asia ke ilaqe men Buddhism, Jainism aur Hinduism pohunch chukka tha. Aur jo tasawauf is ilaqe men pahuch raha hai aur sufi jaisa ki who kapde nahi pahente balki jism ko taklif dena unka pesha hai ye log Khatalan jo ki Kashmir ka ek ilaqa tha us raste se Central Asia men pahunch jate hai.

Professor Aklaq Ahmed Ahan

Ye baat bilkul sahi hain ke tasawauf Hindustan ke hudud mein dakhil hota hain. kyunke Buddhism jo hain Hindustan se nikalke Central Asia aur in tamaam ilaqo mein faiil gaya tha aur jiske zariye se tasawuf Hindustan men aata hai. Lekin, tasawuf sirf Hindustan ki cheej nahin thi, jo tasawuf Islam mein aya hain uspe Buddhism ke asrat nahin hain. Humme ye bhi dhyan dena hoga ke Abbasiyon ke period mein Baitul Hikmat tha. Baitul Hikmat mein tamaam kitaabon ke tarjamein huye the jo Unani kitaben thin. Un kitaabon mein us zamaane mein tasawauf ki fikr bhi thi, Unan mein jis tasawauf ka wajud tha jisko “ignortocism” kehte hain. Aur baad mein Ibane Arbi ne usi ignortosism ko revive kiya. Lekin ab hamen tasawauf ko socio-political ke nazariye se bhi dekhne ki zaroorat hain. Hallaaj jab Anal Haq kehta hain, ya Kajkulahi ki baat aati hain yaani Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya ki ya inke alawa dusre jaise Kabir Das baad ke tamaam Sufia jo baat karte hain usme ek bahut bada message hain.

Khusrau ka jab hum naam lete hain toh ek sher zehen mein aata hain ki:

“ek charaghist dar in khana ke az partave aan - har kuja mee nigram anjumani saakhteyant”

Yaani ye ek aisa chirag hain jiske roshni se jahan mein dekhta hoon wahan pe anjuman ban gaye hain.

Khusrau apne baad ke zamane se lekar aaj tak na sirf sher o shayari, na sirf Farsi shayari, Hindawi balki mukhtalif jo siyasi, samaji, tehzibi aur saqafati rawatene rahe Hindustan mein, Usko unhone ek rukh diya hain.

Jab hum baat karte hain aam tor se ke, Urdu ka fala bada shayar hain, yeh sabse bada shayar hain Mir aur Ghalib, ek bahes chalti hain ki Farsi ka sabse bada shayar kaun hain?Ye ek masla hain jispe wasukh ke saath kuch nahin kaha ja sakta hain ki kaun bada shayar hain kyunke kisi shayar ke kuch aashaar aise hote hain jo baaz dawaveen pe havi hote hain.Lekin, Khusrau ki ek aisi cheez hain jiski nazir aur jiska jawab na sirf Hindustani adab mein, na sirf Farsi adab mein, balki aalami adab mein agar hum global level pe bhi dekhe toh uski nazir nahin milti, woh unki versatility aur shakhsiyatki guna-guni hai. Aur woh mukhtalif cheezo mein unki maharat aur unki ekterayee quwat hain, taqvini salahiyat hain, woh hain unki khas cheezen hain jo unko Farsi ka bada shayar banati hain..

Nizami ne jab panch masnawiyon ka khamsa likha to uske jawaab mein taqriban Farsi ke 200 shayaron ne unki taqlid mein unki paervi mein usi tarz par Khamsa likhne ki koshish ki. Lekin, sirf Amir Khusrau ko Nizami ke Khamse ka jawab dene aur uske ham palla kamyab Khamsa lekhne ki saadat hasil hui. Nizami aur Amir Khusrau ke Khamse ko itni maqbooliyat hasil hui ki unke marne ke 200 saal ke baad ek Turk shahzada jiska naam Baayastaqar tha, usne aur uske bhai Ulugh Beg, un dono mein is baat pe behes hoti thi ke kiski masnavi zyada behtar hain, Nizami Ganjavi ki ya Amir Khusrau ki.

Ye to rahi Amir Khusrau ki masnawi nigari. Thik Usi tarah se Mosiki mein bhi unko ek khas muqam hasil hai, mosiki mein kehte hain ki nayak ka jo darja hota hain woh sabse bada darja hota hain. Toh ek admi apni zindagi mein nayak ke darje pe sirf pahunch jaye wahi badi baat hain.Khusrau shayar bhi hain, shayari mein unhone khamsa bhi likha hain, Kamyaab Khamsa aur uska jo sabse bada namuna hain Nizami ke barabar likh rahe hain.

Usi tarha se ghazal goi ki shayari mein ye baat, tawajjo ki hai. Saadi ko Farsi Ghazal ka sabse bada shayar mana jata hai aru Saadi ke hamzaman Khusrau hain. Hafiz bhi usi zamane mein rahe hain.Hafiz aur Saadi ke beech mein jo kadi hain woh Khusrau hain aur iska etaraaf Hafiz ne baar, baar kiya hain. Inki taraf ishara kar ke Khusrua ko Tutiye Hind aur unke jo peeirwan hain unko Tutiyane Hind kahte hain.

Professor Sayed Shahid Mehdi

Taqreeban 60 ya 65 ghazale Khusrau ki aisi hain jo Saadi ki zameen mein hain.Saadi ki ghazal hain:

“Aab-e hayaat-e manast khak-e sar-e koo-e dost – gar do jahan khurram ist maa v ghame ruwe dost, Walwala dar shaher neest juz shikan-e zulfe yaar - fitna dar afaaq nist juz humm abruwe dost.”

Saadi ki isi Ghazal ke zameen mein Khusrau ne yeh Ghazal likhi hai:

“Qibala-e Islamia kaba boowad dar jahan – qibla-e usshaaq nist juz hume abruwe dost.”

Yahan ye cheez dekhne ko milti hai ki ek hi khayal ko taqriban ek hi tarha ke edition ko do sayar kis tarike se adaa karte hain.


Prof Shareif Husdsain Qasemi:

Saadi Ghazal ke ek azim shayar hain ki ek dusre azim shayar Hafiz, apne aapko unka shagird batane mein fakhra mehsoos karte hain.

Saadi ki taqleed sirf Khusrau nahi karte hai balki ukne dost Amir Hasan Ala-e-Sijzi woh bhi Ghazal ke maidan men saadi ki pairvi karte hai. Aur is martbe ki Ghazal kahte hain ki Sijzi ko Saadiye Hind kaha jata hai aur Khusrua is khitab se mahroom rahte hain.

Professor Aklaq Ahmed Ahan

Khusrau ko puri tarha se sabke Hindi ka shayar nahi kaha jaa sakta. Woh buniyadi taur per sabke Iraqi tradition ke shayar hain. Albatta woh pehle shayar hain jinhone baaz anaasir ko Hindustani Farsi shayari mein introduce kiya hain. Inhone jo us waqt ki Hindustani istelaahaat thin, Hindustani lafziyaat thin, jis ki wajeh se hume us zamaane ki cultural history ka mutala karne mein hamein madad milti hai jaise “Samosa” hum aaj kehte hain uska istemaal unhone apne sher main kiya hain ki,

“Yafte sambose ze taslees asar burraye biryaan sarf az kus khur.”

Iske alaawa unhone aur bhi aisi chizon ka zikra kiya hai jaise Paan ka aur Tambaku ka Khusrau ke pairokaron men baad ke shora hain jinhone unki zameeno mein sher kahe hain usme dono hain, usme Hindustan aur Iran dono ke shora shamil hai. Isliye Khusrau ko sirf Hindustan hi tak mehdood nahin kar sakte.

Katavi Nishaburi Khusrau ke bare mein likhte hai:

“gar husne maani ze Khusrau burd natawan aib kard - zanke ustadash Khusrau balke ze ustadan zeyad”

yaani Khuusrau sirf ustaad hi nahin hain bal ki ustado ka ustad hain.

Tuzke Jahangiri mein zikar ata hain ki us zamaane mein jitni taalimat hoti thi usme Khusrau ki nasr, nazm aur Ijaz e khusravi ko zarur padhaya jata tha.



Participants: Prof. Krishna Bisht, S. Kalidas Iyer, Vidya Rao
Moderator: Irfan Zuberi
Date and venue: 20 February 2012, at IIC Annexe Auditorium
Prof Shareif Husdsain Qasemi

Iran mein ek akhri Taimuri badshah guzra hain, uska naam tha Hussain-e-Bayaqara. Ali Sher Nawayi uska ek wazire azam tha jo bahut bada aalim tha. Ye dono Khusrau ke ashiq they. Badshah ne apne darbar men ye kaha ke jitney maaruf shora hain unko darbar mein bulao.Yeh darbar apne zamaane ka adab ke lihaz se sabse bada darbar tha.Us darbar se sabse zyada Farsi ke shora aur Ulama wabasta the is wajah se is ki adeebon ke yahahn iski azmat sabse zyada thi. Badshah ne bula kar kaha ke, “Aap Khusrau ka kalaam mudawwan kijiye.” Kafi menhnat aur koshish ke baad jab un sabko darbar men pesh kiya jata hai to wahan maujood 15 ya 20 bade-bade shohra the. Woh sab dekh kar kehte hain “ismein Khusrau ki ye ghazal nahin hain, ismein ye qasida rahegaya hai.” to pata yeh chalta hai ke ye hamare bas ki baat nahin hain ki Khusrau ka diwan murttab kiya ja sake.

Khusrau bahut bade Qasida nigar bhi hai. Saadi aur Haafiz se pahle bhi ek sufi shayar they, Sanayee Gaznavi jinhone bahut sari Ghazlen bhi likhi hain. Unhone ek Qasida likha tha jo bahut mashhoor huwa. Khusrau ne bhi usko padha. Khusrau uski peravi mein Qasida kehte hain.Jiska misra ye hai:

“Kus-e shah khaliyo Baang-e ghulgulash dard-e sar ast.”

Ye jo badshahon ki aap shano-shaukat dekh rahe hain aur uske darwaze par tabla bajte rahete hain, bada sa tabla jo yahan rakha huwa hain ye ander se khali hain. Yani ye jo badshahat hain sirf chaar din ke chandni hai.

Ye Khusrau ka mizaj hai, jo7 darbaron se waabasta rahe.Khusrau ne Sanayee ki pairvi ki lekin ab log Sanayee ko bhool gaye hain aur logon ne Khusrau ke us Qaside ki pairvi karne shuru kardi.

Yahan par Khsurau ki ek Ghazal pesh hai jiske har mishre men sawal bhi hai aur jawab bhi hain. Aur yeh Ghazal Rumi ki ek Ghazal ke zameen mein kahi gayi hai:

“Guftam ke raushan az qamar gufta ke ruksaar-e manast -guftam ki sirinaz qamar gufta ke guftaar-e manast, Guftam tariq-e ashiqan, gufta wafadari buwad - guftam makun jorojafa, gufta ki in kar-e manast, Guftam ke marg-e aashiqan, gufta ke dard-e hijr-e man - guftam elaaj-e zindagi guftake deedar-e manast, Guftam ke hoori ya pari, gufta ke man shah-e jahaan - guftam ke Khusrau naatawaan, gufta ke parastar-e manast.”

Khusrau se pahle isi zameen mein Rumi ne ek Ghazal kahi hai:

“Gufta ke kis bar dar guftam kamin ghulamat - gufta chekaardaari guftam maha salamat, Gufta ki chandrani, guftam ke tabekhani -gufta ke chand joshi, guftam ke taa qayamat,”

Usi zameen mein hain aur usi andaaz mein sawaal aur jawab aur muqalma ke andaz men.